NMR properties:

Magnetogyric Ratio NMR frequency Natural abundance (NA) Nuclear spin (I) Quadrupole moment (Q) Reference sample
55 Mn 6.6452510^7 rad/sT 24.7892MHz 100% 5.5 33fm²

KMnO4 in D2O

55 Mn

(L. magnes, magnet, from magnetic properties of pyrolusite; It. manganese, corrupt form of magnesia)
Recognized by Scheele, Bergman, and others as an element and isolated by Gahn in 1774 by reduction of
the dioxide with carbon.
Manganese minerals are widely distributed; oxides, silicates, and carbonates are the most common. The
discovery of large quantities of manganese nodules on the floor of the oceans may become a source of
manganese. These nodules contain about 24% manganese together with many other elements in lesser
Most manganese today is obtained from ores found in Russia, Brazil, Australia, Republic of S. Africa,
Gabon, and India. Pyrolusite and rhodochrosite are among the most common manganese minerals. The
metal is obtained by reduction of the oxide with sodium, magnesium, aluminum, or by elctrolysis.
It is gray-white, resembling iron, but is harder and very brittle. The metal is reactive chemically, and
decomposes cold water slowly. Manganese is used to form many important alloys. In steel, manganese
improves the rolling and forging qualities, strength, toughness, stiffness, wear resistance, hardness, and

With aluminum and antimony, especially with small amounts of copper, it forms highly ferromagnetic
Manganese metal is ferromagnetic only after special treatment. The pure metal exists in four allotropic
forms. The alpha form is stable at ordinary temperature; gamma manganese, which changes to alpha at
ordinary temperatures, is said to be flexible, soft, easily cut, and capable of being bent.
The dioxide (pyrolusite) is used as a depolarizer in dry cells, and is used to "decolorize" glass that is
colored green by impurities of iron. Manganese by itself colors glass an amethyst color, and is
responsible for the color of true amethyst. The dioxide is also used in the preparation of oxygen and
chlorine, and in drying black paints. The permanganate is a powerful oxidizing agent and is used in
quantitative analysis and in medicine.
Manganese is widely distributed throughout the animal kingdom. It is an important trace element and
may be essential for utilization of vitamin B1.