NMR properties:

Magnetogyric Ratio NMR frequency Natural abundance (NA) Nuclear spin (I) Quadrupole moment (Q) Reference sample
93 Nb 6.567410^7 rad/sT 24.4762MHz 100% 9.5 -32fm²


93 Nb

(Niobe, daughter of Tantalus) Discovered in 1801 by Hatchett in an ore sent to England more than a
century before by John Winthrop the Younger, first governor of Connecticut. The metal was first
prepared in 1864 by Blomstrand, who reduced the chloride by heating it in a hydrogen atmosphere. The
name niobium was adopted by the International Union of Pur and Applied Chemicstry in 1950 after 100
years of controversy. Many leading chemical societies and government organizations refer to it by this
name. Most metallurgists, leading metal societies, and all but one of the leading U.S. commercial
producers, however, still refer to the metal as "columbium."
The element is found in niobite (or columbite), niobite-tantalite, parochlore, and euxenite. Large deposits
of niobium have been found associated with carbonatites (carbon-silicate rocks), as a constituent of
parochlore. Extensive ore reserves are found in Canada, Brazil, Nigeria, Zaire, and in Russia.
It is a shiny, white, soft, and ductile metal, and takes on a bluish cast when exposed to air at room
temperatures for a long time. The metal starts to oxidize in air at 200oC, and when processed at even
moderate temperatures must be placed in a protective atmosphere.
It is used in arc-welding rods for stabilized grades of stainless steel. Thousands of pounds of niobium
have been used in advanced air frame systems such as were used in the Gemini space program. The
element has superconductive properties; superconductive magnets have been made with Nb-Zr wire,
which retains its superconductivity in strong magnetic fields. This type of application offers hope of
direct large-scale generation of electric power.
Eighteen isotopes of niobium are known. The metal can be isolated from tantalum, and prepared in
several ways.