NMR properties:

Magnetogyric Ratio NMR frequency Natural abundance (NA) Nuclear spin (I) Quadrupole moment (Q) Reference sample
45 Sc 6.508810^7 rad/sT 24.2917MHz 100% 7.5 -22fm²


45 Sc

(L. Scandia, Scandinavia) On the basis of the Periodic System, Mendeleev predicted the existence of
ekaboron, which would have an atomic weight between 40 of calcium and 48 of titanium.
The element was discovered by Nilson in 1878 in the minerals euxenite and gadolinite, which had not yet
been found anywhere except in Scandinavia. By processing 10 kg of euxenite and other residues of rareearth
minerals, Nilson was able to prepare about 2g of highly pure scandium oxide. Later scientists
pointed out that Nilson's scandium was identical with Mendeleev's ekaboron.
Scandium is apparently much more abundant (the 23rd most) in the sun and certain stars than on earth
(the 50th most abundant). It is widely distributed on earth, occurring in very minute quantities in over
800 mineral species. The blue color of beryl (aquamarine variety) is said to be due to scandium. It occurs
as a principal component in the rare mineral thortveitite, found in Scandinavia and Malagasy. It is also
found in the residues remaining after the extraction of tungsten from Zinnwald wolframite, and in wiikite
and bazzite.
Most scandium is presently being recovered from thortveitite or is extracted as a by-product from
uranium mill tailings. Metallic scandium was first prepared in 1937 by Fischer, Brunger, and Grienelaus
who electrolyzed a eutectic melt of potassium, lithium, and scandium chlorides at 700 to 800oC.
Tungsten wire and a pool of molten zinc served as the electrodes in a graphite crucible. Pure scandium is
now produced by reducing scandium fluoride with calcium metal.

The production of the first pound of 99% pure scandium metal was announced in 1960.
Scandium is a silver-white metal which develops a slightly yellowish or pinkish cast upon exposure to
air. A relatively soft element, scandium resembles yttrium and the rare-earth metals more than it
resembles aluminum or titanium.
It is a very light metal and has a much higher melting point than aluminum, making it of interest to
designers of spacecraft. Scandium is not attacked by a 1:1 mixture of HNO3 and 48% HF.